NEB Class 11 and 12 Chemistry New Curriculum and Syllabus - 2081 - Note Library


NEB Class 11 and 12 Chemistry New Curriculum and Syllabus - 2081

NEB Class 11 and 12 Chemistry New Curriculum and Syllabus - 2081 neb updated syllabus

  This curriculum is tailored for grade 11 and 12 students in the science stream, recognizing their varied aspirations. Some may pursue further studies in specialized scientific fields, while others might opt for technical, vocational, or different academic paths. The curriculum aims to impart a foundational understanding of the basic scientific laws and principles that shape our world. It is designed to cultivate scientific knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential for secondary education (grades 11-12), aligning with national objectives regardless of students' future academic or career choices.

Chapterwise Summary of Chemistry (New NEB Curriculum syllabus Class 11 and 12)

Class 11Class 12

General and physical chemistry

1. Foundation and Fundamentals1. Volumetric analysis
2. Stoichiometry 2. Ionic equilibrium
3. Atomic structure3. Chemical kinetics
4. Classification of elements and periodic table4. Thermodynamics
5. Chemical bonding and shapes of molecules5. Electrochemistry
6. Oxidation and reduction 
7. States of matter 
8. Chemical equilibrium 

Inorganic chemistry

9. Chemistry of Non-metals6. Transition metals
10. Chemistry of metals7. Studies of heavy metals
11. Bio-inorganic chemistry 

Organic chemistry

12. Basic concept of organic chemistry8. Haloalkanes
13. Fundamental principles9. Haloarenes
14. Hydrocarbons10. Alcohols
15. Aromatic hydrocarbons11. Phenols
 12. Ethers
 13. Aldehydes and ketones
 14. Carboxylic acid and its derivatives
 15. Nitro compounds
 16. Amines
 17. Organometallic compounds

Applied chemistry

16. Fundamentals of applied chemistry18. Chemistry in the service of mankind
17. Modern chemical manufactures19. Cement
 20. Paper and pulp
 21. Nuclear chemistry and application of radioactivity

NEB class 11 Chemistry curriculum and syllabus


General and physical chemistry

1. Foundation and Fundamentals (2 hr)

1.1 General introduction of chemistry

1.2 Importance and scope of chemistry

1.3 Basic concepts of chemistry (atoms, molecules, relative masses of atoms and molecules, atomic mass unit ( amu), radicals, molecular formula, empirical formula )

1.4 Percentage composition from molecular formula

2. Stoichiometry  (8 hr)

2.1 Dalton’s atomic theory and its postulates

2.2 Laws of stoichiometry

2.3 Avogadro’s law and some deductions

2.3.1  Molecular mass and vapour density

2.3.2  Molecular mass and volume of gas

2.3.3  Molecular mass and no. of particles

2.4 Mole and its relation with mass, volume and number of particles

2.5 Calculations based on mole concept

2.6 Limiting reactant and excess reactant

2.7 Theoretical yield, experimental yield and % yield

2.8 Calculation of empirical and molecular formula from % composition (Solving related numerical problems)

3. Atomic structure (8 hr)

3.1 Rutherford's atomic model

3.2 Limitations of Rutherford's atomic model

3.3 Postulates of Bohr’s atomic model and its application

3.4 Spectrum of hydrogen atom

3.5 Defects of Bohr’s theory

3.6 Elementary idea of quantum mechanical model: de Broglie's wave equation

3.7 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

3.8 Concept of probability

3.9 Quantum Numbers

3.10 Orbitals and shape of s and p orbitals only

3.11 Aufbau Principle

3.12 Pauli’s exclusion principle

3.13 Hund’s rule and electronic configurations of atoms and ions (up to atomic no. 30)

4. Classification of elements and periodic table (5 hr)

4.1 Modern periodic law and modern periodic table

4.1.1 Classification of elements into different groups, periods and blocks

4.2 IUPAC classification of elements

4.3 Nuclear charge and effective nuclear charge

4.4 Periodic trend and periodicity 4.4.1 Atomic radii

4.4.2 Ionic radii

4.4.3 Ionization energy 

4.4.4 Electron affinity 

4.4.5 Electronegativity

4.4.6 Metallic characters (General trend and explanation only)

5. Chemical bonding and shapes of molecules (9 hr)

5.1 Valence shell, valence electron and octet theory

5.2 Ionic bond and its properties

5.3 Covalent bond and coordinate covalent bond

5.4 Properties of covalent compounds

5.5 Lewis dot structure of some common compounds of s and p block elements

5.6 Resonance

5.7 VSEPR theory and shapes of some simple molecules (BeF2, BF3, CH4, CH3Cl, PCl5, SF6, H2O,NH3,CO2,H2S, PH3)

5.8 Elementary idea of Valence Bond Theory

5.9 Hybridization involving s and p orbitals only

5.10 Bond characteristics: 5.10.1 Bond length 5.10.2 Ionic character 5.10.3 Dipole moment

5.11 Vander Waal’s force and molecular solids

5.12 Hydrogen bonding and its application

5.13 Metallic bonding and properties of metallic solids

6. Oxidation and reduction (5 hr)

6.1 General and electronic concept of oxidation and reduction

6.2 Oxidation number and rules for assigning oxidation number

6.3 Balancing redox reactions by oxidation number and ion-electron (half reaction) method

6.4 Electrolysis

6.4.1 Qualitative aspect

6.4.2 Quantitative aspect(Faradays laws of electrolysis)

7. States of matter (8 hr)

7.1 Gaseous state

7.1.1  Kinetic theory of gas and its postulates

7.1.2  Gas laws Boyle’s law and Charles' law Avogadro's law Combined gas equation Dalton's law of partial pressure Graham's law of diffusion

7.1.3  Ideal gas and ideal gas equation

7.1.4  Universal gas constant and its significance

7.1.5  Deviation of real gas from ideality (Solving related numerical problems based on gas laws)

7.2 Liquid state

7.2.1  Physical properties of liquids Evaporation and condensation Vapour pressure and boiling point Surface tension and viscosity (qualitative

idea only)

7.2.2  Liquid crystals and their applications

7.3 Solid state

7.3.1  Types of solids

7.3.2  Amorphous and crystalline solids

7.3.3  Efflorescent, Deliquescent and Hygroscopic solids

7.3.4  Crystallization and crystal growth

7.3.5  Water of crystallization

7.3.6  Introduction to unit crystal lattice and unit cell

8. Chemical equilibrium  (3 hr)

8.1 Physical and chemical equilibrium

8.2 Dynamic nature of chemical equilibrium

8.3 Law of mass action

8.4 Expression for equilibrium constant and its importance

8.5 Relationship between Kp and Kc

8.6 Le Chatelier’s Principle (Numericals not required)

Inorganic chemistry

9. Chemistry of Non-metals (22 hr)

9.1 Hydrogen

9.1.1  Chemistry of atomic and nascent hydrogen

9.1.2  Isotopes of hydrogen and their uses

9.1.3  Application of hydrogen as fuel

9.1.4  Heavy water and its applications

9.2 Allotropes of Oxygen

9.2.1  Definition of allotropy and examples

9.2.2  Oxygen: Types of oxides (acidic, basic, neutral, amphoteric, peroxide and mixed oxides)

9.2.3  Applications of hydrogen peroxide

9.2.4  Medical and industrial application of oxygen

9.3 Ozone

9.3.1  Occurrence

9.3.2  Preparation of ozone from oxygen

9.3.3  Structure of ozone

9.3.4  Test for ozone

9.3.5  Ozone layer depletion (causes, effects and control measures)

9.3.6  Uses of ozone

9.4 Nitrogen

9.4.1  Reason for inertness of nitrogen and active nitrogen

9.4.2  Chemical properties of ammonia [ Action with CuSO4 solution, water, FeCl3 solution, Conc. HCl, Mercurous nitrate paper, O2 ]

9.4.3  Applications of ammonia

9.4.4  Harmful effects of ammonia

9.4.5  Oxy-acids of nitrogen (name and formula)

9.4.6  Chemical properties of nitric acid [HNO3 as an acid and oxidizing agent (action with zinc, magnesium, iron, copper, sulphur, carbon, SO2 and H2S)

9.4.7  Ring test for nitrate ion 

9.5 Halogens

9.5.1 General characteristics of halogens

9.5.2 Comparative study on preparation (no diagram and description is required), Chemical properties [with water, alkali, ammonia, oxidizing character, bleaching action] and uses of halogens (Cl2, Br2 and I2)

9.5.3  Test for Cl2, Br2 and I2

9.5.4  Comparative study on preparation (no diagram and description is required), properties ( reducing strength, acidic nature and solubility) and uses of haloacids (HCl, HBr and HI)

9.6 Carbon

9.6.1  Allotropes of carbon (crystalline and amorphous) including fullerenes (structure, general properties and uses only)

9.6.2  Properties (reducing action, reaction with metals and nonmetals) and uses of carbon monoxide

9.7 Phosphorus

9.7.1  Allotropes of phosphorus (name only)

9.7.2  Preparation (no diagram and description is required), properties ( basic nature ,reducing nature , action with halogens and oxygen) and uses of phosphine

9.8 Sulphur

9.8.1  Allotropes of sulphur (name only) and uses of sulphur

9.8.2  Hydrogen sulphide (preparation from Kipp's apparatus with diagram,) properties (Acidic nature, reducing nature, analytical reagent) and uses

9.8.3  Sulphur dioxide its properties (acidic nature, reducing nature, oxidising nature and bleaching action) and uses

9.8.4  Sulphuric acid and its properties (acidic nature, oxidising nature, dehydrating nature) and uses

9.8.5  Sodium thiosulphate (formula and uses)

10. Chemistry of metals  (10 hr)

10.1 Metals and Metallurgical Principles

10.1.1 Definition of metallurgy and its types (hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, electrometallurgy)

10.1.2 Introduction of ores

10.1.3 Gangue or matrix, flux and slag, alloy and amalgam

10.1.4 General principles of extraction of metals (different processes involved in metallurgy) – concentration, calcination and roasting, smelting, carbon reduction, thermite and electrochemical reduction

10.1.5 Refining of metals (poling and electro-refinement)

10.2 Alkali Metals

10.2.1 General characteristics of alkali metals

10.2.2 Sodium [extraction from Down's process, properties (action with Oxygen, water, acids nonmetals and ammonia) and uses]

10.2.3 Properties (precipitation reaction

and action with carbon monooxide) and uses of sodium hydroxide

10.2.4 Properties (action with CO2, SO2, water, precipitation reactions) and uses of sodium carbonate

10.3 Alkaline Earth Metals

10.3.1 General characteristics of alkaline earth metals

10.3.2 Molecular formula and uses of (quick lime, bleaching powder, magnesia, plaster of paris and epsom salt)

10.3.3 Solubility of hydroxides, carbonates and sulphates of alkaline earth metals (general trend with explanation)

10.3.4 Stability of carbonate and nitrate of alkaline earth metals (general trend with explanation)

11. Bio-inorganic chemistry (3 hr)

11. Introduction to Bio-inorganic Chemistry

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Micro and macro nutrients

11.3 Importance of metal ions in biological systems (ions of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr)

11.4 Ion pumps (sodium-potassium and sodium-glucose pump)

11.5 Metal toxicity (toxicity due to iron, arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium)

Organic chemistry

12. Basic concept of organic chemistry  (6 hr)

12.1 Introduction to organic chemistry and organic compounds

12.2 Reasons for the separate study of organic compounds from inorganic


12.3 Tetra-covalency and catenation properties of carbon

12.4 Classification of organic compounds

12.5 Alkyl groups, functional groups and homologous series

12.6 Idea of structural formula, contracted formula and bond line structural formula

12.7 Preliminary idea of cracking and reforming, quality of gasoline, octane number, cetane number and gasoline additive

13. Fundamental principles of organic chemistry (10 hr)

13.1 IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (upto chain having 6- carbon atoms)

13.2 Qualitative analysis of organic compounds (detection of N, S and halogens by Lassaigne's test)

13.3 Isomerism in Organic Compounds

13.4 Definition and classification of isomerism

13.5 Structural isomerism and its types: chain isomerism, position isomerism, functional isomerism, metamerism and tautomerism

13.6 Concept of geometrical isomerism (cis & trans) & optical isomerism (d & l form)

13.7 Preliminary Idea of Reaction Mechanism

13.7.1 Homolytic and heterolytic fission

13.7.2 Electrophiles, nucleophiles and free- radicals

13.7.3 Inductive effect: +I and –I effect

13.7.4 Resonance effect: +R and –R effect

14. Hydrocarbons  (8 hr)

14.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons (Alkanes)

14.1.1 Alkanes: Preparation from haloalkanes (Reduction and Wurtz reaction), Decarboxylation, Catalytic hydrogenation of alkene and alkyne

14.1.2 Chemical properties: Substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration & sulphonation only), oxidation of ethane

14.2 Unsaturated hydrocarbons (Alkenes & Alkynes)

14.2.1 Alkenes: Preparation by Dehydration of alcohol, Dehydrohalogenation, Catalytic hydrogenation of alkyne Chemical properties: Addition reaction with HX (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), H2O, O3, H2SO4 only

14.3 Alkynes: Preparation from carbon and hydrogen, 1,2 dibromoethane, chloroform/iodoform only

14.3.1 Chemical properties: Addition reaction with (H2, HX, H2O), Acidic nature (action with Sodium, ammoniacal AgNO3 and ammoniacal Cu2Cl2)

14.4 Test of unsaturation (ethene & ethyne): bromine water test and Baeyer's test

14.5 Comparative studies of physical properties of alkane, alkene and alkyne

14.6 Kolbe's electrolysis methods for the preparation of alkane, alkene and alkynes

15. Aromatic hydrocarbons (6 hr)

15.1 Introduction and characteristics of aromatic compounds

15.2 Huckel's rule of aromaticity 15.3 Kekule structure of benzene 15.4 Resonance and isomerism

15.5 Preparation of benzene from decarboxylation of sodium benzoate, phenol, and ethyne only

15.6 Physical properties of benzene

15.7 Chemical properties of benzene: Addition reaction: hydrogen, halogen, Electrophilic substitution reactions: orientation of benzene derivatives (o, m & p), nitration, sulphonation, halogenations, Friedal-Craft's reaction (alkylation and acylation), combustion of benzene ( free combustion only) and uses Phenols

Applied chemistry

16. Fundamentals of applied chemistry (4 hr)

16.1 Fundamentals of Applied Chemistry

16.1.2 Chemical industry and its importance

16.1.3 Stages in producing a new product

16.1.4 Economics of production

16.1.5 Cash flow in the production cycle 

16.1.6 Running a chemical plant

16.1.7 Designing a chemical plant 

16.1.8 Continuous and batch processing

16.1.9 Environmental impact of the chemical industry

17. Modern chemical manufactures (11 hr)

17.1 Modern Chemical Manufactures (principle and flow sheet diagram only)

17.1.1 Manufacture of ammonia by Haber's process,

17.1.2 Manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald's process,

17.1.3 Manufacture of sulphuric acid by contact process,

17.1.4 Manufacture of sodium hydroxide by Diaphragm Cell

17.1.5 Manufacture of sodium carbonate by ammonia soda or Solvay process

17.2 Fertilizers (Chemical fertilizers, types of chemical fertilizers, production of urea with flow-sheet diagram)

NEB class 12 Chemistry curriculum and syllabus 


General and physical chemistry

1. Volumetric analysis (8 hr)

1.1 Introduction to gravimetric analysis, volumetric analysis and equivalent weight

1.2 Relationship between equivalent weight, atomic weight and valency

1.3 Equivalent weight of compounds (acid, base, salt, oxidizing and reducing agents)

1.4 Concentration of solution and its units in terms of : Percentage, g/L , molarity, molality, normality and formality, ppm and ppb

1.5 Primary and secondary standard substances

1.6 Law of equivalence and normality equation

1.7 Titration and its types: Acid-base titration, redox titration ( related numerical problems)

2. Ionic equilibrium (10 hr)

Introduction to Acids and Bases

2.1. Limitation of Arrhenius concepts of acids and bases

2.2 Bronsted –Lowry definition of acids and bases

2.3 Relative strength of acids and bases

2.4 Conjugate acid –base pairs

2.5 Lewis definition of acids and bases

2.6 Ionization of weak electrolyte (Ostwald's dilution law)

2.7 Ionic product of water(Kw)

2.8 Dissociation constant of acid and base, (Ka& Kb)

2.9 Concept of pKa and pKb

2.10 pH value: pH of strong and weak acids, pH of strong and weak bases

2.11 Solubility and solubility product principle

2.12 Common Ion effect

2.13 Application of solubility product principle and common ion effect in precipitation reactions

2.14 Buffer solution and its application

2.15 Indicators and selection of indicators in acid base titration

2.16 Types of salts: Acidic salts, basic salts, simple salts, complex salts (introduction and examples)

2.17 Hydrolysis of salts

2.17.1 Salts of strong acid and strong base

2.17.2 Salts of weak acid and strong base

2.17.3 Salts of weak base and strong acid (solving related numerical problems)

3. Chemical kinetics (7 hr)

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Rate of reactions: Average and instantaneous rate of reactions

3.3 Rate law and its expressions

3.4 Rate constant and its unit and significance

3.5 Order and molecularity

3.6 Integrated rate equation for zero and first order reaction

3.7 Half-life of zero and first order reactions

3.8 Collision theory, concept of activation energy and activated complex

3.9 Factors affecting rate of reactions: Effect of concentration, temperature (Arrhenius Equation) and effect of catalyst (energy profile diagram)

3.10 Catalysis and types of catalysis: homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme catalysis (solving related numerical problems based on rate, rate constant and order of zero and first order reactions)

4. Thermodynamics (8 hr)

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Energy in chemical reactions

4.3 Internal energy

4.4 First law of thermodynamics

4.5 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes: Endothermic and exothermic processes)

4.6 Enthalpy of reaction, enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion

4.7 Laws of thermochemistry (Laplace Law and Hess’s law)

4.8 Entropy and spontaneity

4.9 Second law of thermodynamics

4.10 Gibbs' free energy and prediction of spontaneity

4.11 Relationship between ∆G and equilibrium constant (Solving related numerical problems)

5. Electrochemistry (7 hr)

5.1 Electrode potential and standard electrode potential

5.2 Types of electrodes: Standard hydrogen electrode and calomel electrodes

5.3 Electrochemical series and its applications

5.4 Voltaic cell: Zn-Cu cell, Ag- Cu cell

5.5 Cell potential and standard cell potential

5.6 Relationship between cell potential and free energy

5.7 Commercial batteries and fuel cells (hydrogen/oxygen)

Inorganic chemistry

6. Transition metals (5 hr)

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1  Characteristics of transition metals

6.1.2  Oxidation states of transition metals

6.1.3  Complex ions and metal complexes

6.1.4  Shapes of complex ions

6.1.5  d-orbitals in complex ions (simple explanation by crystal field theory) for octahedral complex

6.1.6  Reasons for the colour of transition metal compounds

6.1.7  Catalytic properties of transition metals

7. Studies of heavy metals (15 hr)

7.1 Copper

7.1.1  Occurrence and extraction of copper from copper pyrite

7.1.2  Properties (with air, acids, aqueous ammonia and metal ions) and uses of copper

7.1.3  Chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of blue vitriol 7.1.4 Other compounds of copper (red oxide and black oxide of copper) formula and uses only

7.2 Zinc

7.2.1  Occurrence and extraction of zinc from zinc blende

7.2.2  Properties (with air, acid, alkali, displacement reaction) and uses of zinc

7.2.3  Chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of white vitriol

7.3 Mercury

7.3.1  Occurrence and extraction of mercury from cinnabar

7.3.2  Properties of mercury

7.3.3  Chemistry (preparation, properties and uses) of calomel and corrosive sublimate

7.4 Iron

7.4.1  Occurrence and extraction of iron

7.4.2  Properties and uses of iron

7.4.3  Manufacture of steel by Basic Oxygen Method and Open Hearth Process

7.4.4  Corrosion of iron and its prevention

7.5 Silver

7.5.1 Occurrence and extraction of silver by cyanide process

7.5.2 Preparation and uses of silver chloride and silver nitrate

Organic chemistry

8. Haloalkanes (8 hr)

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Nomenclature, isomerism and classification of monohaloalkanes

8.3 Preparation of monohaloalkanes from alkanes, alkenes and alcohols

8.4 Physical properties of monohaloalkanes

8.5 Chemical properties, substitution reactions SN1 and SN2 reactions (basic concept only)

8.6 Formation of alcohol, nitrile, amine, ether, thioether, carbylamines, nitrite and nitro alkane using haloalkanes

8.7 Elimination reaction (dehydrohalogenation- Saytzeff's rule), Reduction reactions, Wurtz reaction

8.8 Preparation of trichloromethane from ethanol and propanone

8.9 Chemical properties of trichloromethane: oxidation, reduction, action on silver powder, conc. nitric acid, propanone, and aqueous alkali

9. Haloarenes (3 hr)

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Nomenclature and isomerism of haloarenes

9.3 Preparation of chlorobenzene from benzene and benzene diazonium chloride

9.4 Physical properties

9.5 Chemical properties

9.5.1  Low reactivity of haloarenes as compared to haloalkanes in term of nucleophilic substitution reaction

9.5.2  Reduction of chlorobenzene

9.5.3  Electrophilic substitution reactions

9.5.4  Action with Na (Fittig and Wurtz- Fittig reaction)

9.5.5  Action with chloral

9.6 Uses of haloarenes

10. Alcohols (7 hr)

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Nomenclature, isomerism and classification of monohydric alcohol

10.3 Distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols by Victor Meyer's Method

10.4 Preparation of monohydric alcohols from Haloalkane, primary amines, and esters

10.5 Industrial preparation alcohol from: oxo process,

hydroboration-oxidation of ethene & fermentation of sugar

10.6 Definition of common terms: Absolute alcohol, power alcohol, denatured alcohol (methylated spirit), rectified spirit; alcoholic beverage

10.7 Physical properties monohydric alcohols

10.8 Chemical properties of monohydric alcohols

10.8.1 Reaction with HX, PX3, PCl5, SOCl2

10.8.2 Action with reactive metals like Na, K, Li

10.8.3 Dehydration of alcohols

10.8.4 Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol with mild oxidizing agents like acidified KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7

10.8.5 Catalyic dehydrogenation of 1° and 2°alcohol and dehydration of 3°alcohol

10.8.6 Esterification reaction 

10.8.7 Test of ethanol

11. Phenols (4 hr)

11.1 Introduction and nomenclature

11.2 Preparation of phenol from i. chlorobenzene ii. Diazonium salt and iii. benzene sulphonic acid

11.3 Physical properties of phenol

11.4 Chemical properties

11.4.1 Acidic nature of phenol (comparison with alcohol and water)

11.4.2 Action with NH3, Zn, Na, benzene diazonium chloride and phthalic anhydride

11.4.3 Acylation reaction, Kolbe's reaction, Reimer-Tiemann's reaction

11.4.4 Electrophilic substitution: nitration, sulphonation, brominaiton and Friedal-Craft's alkylation

11.5 Test of phenol: (FeCl3 test, aq. Bromine test & Libermann test)

11.6 Uses of phenol

12. Ethers (2 hr)

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Nomenclature, classification and isomerism of ethers

12.3 Preparation of aliphatic and aromatic ethers from Williamson's synthesis

12.4 Physical properties of ether

12.5 Chemical properties of ethoxyethane: action with HI , Conc. HCl, Conc. H2SO4, air and Cl2

12.6 Uses of ethers

13. Aldehydes and ketones (10 hr)

13.1 Aliphatic aldehydes and ketones

13.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism

13.1.2 Preparation of aldehydes and ketones from: Dehydrogenation and oxidation of alcohol, Ozonolysis of alkenes, Acid chloride, Gem dihaloalkane, Catalytic hydration of alkynes

13.1.3 Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones

13.1.4 Chemical properties Structure and nature of carbonyl group Distinction between aldehyde and ketones by using 2,4- DNP reagent, Tollen's reagent, Fehling's solution Addition reaction: addition of H2, HCN and NaHSO3 Action of aldehyde and ketone with ammonia derivatives; NH2OH, NH2-NH2, phenyl hydrazine, semicarbazide, Aldol condensation Cannizzaro's reaction Clemmensen's reduction Wolf-Kishner reduction Action with PCl5 and action with LiAlH4 Action of methanal with ammonia and phenol

13.1.5 Formalin and its uses

13.2 Aromatic aldehydes and Ketones

13.2.1 Preparation of benzaldehyde from toluene and acetophenone from benzene

13.2.2 Properties of benzaldehyde Perkin condensation Benzoin condensation Cannizzaro's reaction Electrophilic substitution reaction

14. Carboxylic acid and its derivatives (9 hr)

14.1 Aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids

14.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism

14.1.2 Preparation of monocarboxylic acids from: aldehydes, nitriles, dicarboxylic acid, sodium alkoxide and trihaloalkanes

14.1.3 Preparation of benzoic acid from alkyl benzene

14.1.4 Physical properties of monocarboxylic acids

14.1.5 Chemical properties: Action with alkalies, metal oxides, metal carbonates, metal bicarbonates, PCl3, LiAlH4 and dehydration of carboxylic acid

14.1.6 Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction

14.1.7 Electrophilic substitution reaction of benzoic acid - bromination, nitration and sulphonation)

14.1.8 Effect of constituents on the acidic strength of carboxylic acid

14.1.9 Abnormal behaviour of methanoic acid

14.2 Derivatives of Carboxylic acids (acid halides, amides, esters and anhydrides)

14.2.1 Preparation of acid derivatives from carboxylic acid

14.2.2 Comparative physical properties of acid derivatives

14.2.3 Comparative chemical properties of acid derivatives (hydrolysis, ammonolysis, amines (RNH2), alcoholysis, and reduction only)

14.2.4 Claisen condensation

14.2.5 Hofmann bromamide reaction 

14.2.6 Amphoteric nature of amide

14.2.7 Relative reactivity of acid derivatives

15. Nitro compounds (3 hr)

15.1 Nitroalkanes

15.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism

15.1.2 Preparation from haloalkane and alkane

15.1.3 Physical properties

15.1.4 Chemical properties: Reduction 

15.2 Nitrobenzene

15.2.1 Preparation from benzene 

15.2.2 Physical properties

15.2.3 Chemical properties

15.2.4 Reduction in different media

15.2.5 Electrophilic substitution reactions (nitration, sulphonation & bromination)

15.2.6 Uses of nitro-compounds

16. Amines (7 hr)

16.1 Aliphatic amines

16.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature, classification and isomerism

16.1.2 Separation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines by Hoffmann's method

16.1.3 Preparation of primary amines from haloalkane, nitriles, nitroalkanes and amides

16.1.4 Physical properties

16.1.5 Chemical properties: basicity of amines, comparative study of of basic nature of 10, 20 and 30 amines 16.1.6 Reaction of primary amines with chloroform, conc. HCl, R-X, RCOX   and nitrous acid (NaNO2 / HCl)

16.1.7 Test of 10, 20 and 30 amines (nitrous acid test)

16.2 Aromatic amine (Aniline)

16.2.1 Preparation of aniline from nitrobenzene, phenol

16.2.2 Physical properties

16.2.3 Chemical properties: basicity of aniline, comparison of basic nature of aniline with aliphatic amines and ammonia, alkylation, acylation, diazotization, carbylamine and coupling reaction, electrophilic substitution: Nitration sulphonation and bromination

16.2.4 Uses of aniline

17. Organometallic compounds (2 hr)

17.1 Introduction, general formula and examples of organolithium, organocopper and organocadmium compounds

17.2 Nature of Metal-Carbon bond

17.3 Grignard reagent

17.3.1 Preparation (using haloalkane and haloarene)

17.3.2 Reaction of Grignard reagent with water, aldehydes and ketones ( preparation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols), carbon dioxide, HCN, RCN, ester and acid chloride

Applied chemistry

18. Chemistry in the service of mankind (4 hr)

18.1 Polymers

18.1.1 Addition and condensation polymers

18.1.2 Elastomers and fibres

18.1.3 Natural and synthetic polymers

18.1.4 Some synthetic polymers (polythene, PVC, Teflon, polystyrene, nylon and bakelite

18.2 Dyes

18.2.1 Introduction

18.2.2 Types of dyes on the basis of structure and method of application

18.3 Drugs

18.3.1 Characteristics of drugs

18.3.2 Natural and synthetic drugs

18.3.3 Classification of some common drugs

18.3.4 Habit forming drugs and drug addiction

18.4 Pesticides

18.4.1 Introduction to insecticides, herbicides and fungicides

19. Cement (4 hr)

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Raw materials for cement production

19.3 Main steps in cement production (crushing and grinding, strong heating and final grinding)

19.4 Types of cement- OPC and PPC

19.5 Portland cement process with flow-sheet diagram

19.6 Cement Industry in Nepal

20. Paper and pulp (3 hr)

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Raw materials

20.3 Sources of raw materials

20.4 Stages in production of paper

20.5 Flow-sheet diagram for paper production

20.6 Quality of paper

21. Nuclear chemistry and application of radioactivity (2 hr)

21.1 Natural and artificial radioactivity

21.2 Units of radioactivity

21.3 Nuclear reactions

21.4 Nuclear fission and fusion reactions

21.5 Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

21.6 Industrial uses of radioactivity 

21.7 Medical uses of radioactivity 

21.8 Radiocarbon dating

21.9 Harmful effects of nuclear radiations

NEB Class 11 and 12 Chemistry chapter summary

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