Historical Background of Surveying in the world and in Nepal. - Note Library


Historical Background of Surveying in the world and in Nepal.

Historical Background of Surveying in Nepal and world Tribhuwan university purbanchal university pokhara university fundamental of Surveying easy lang

 Surveying is an art and science of determining the relative position of natural and manmade features on, above or below the surface of the Earth by taking direct or indirect measurement of distance, direction and height.

Historical Background in World Context

  • Dates back to ancient times
  • Land register in Egypt in 3000 BC
  • Re-establishment of farm boundaries following floods of the Nile River and construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza recorded about the same time. (3000BC)
  • Under the Romans, land surveying was established as a profession and land surveyors established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as tax register of conquered lands (300AD)
  • In eighteenth century, Europe, a method of surveying known as triangulation, which relied on the measurement of angles, was used to build a hierarchy of networks to allow point positioning in within a county.
  • In the early days of British colonization of Australia and New Zealand “much of the survey work undertaken to open up the country and provide land holdings to settlers was carried out using Gunter’s chains, measurement ring wheel, circumferentor.
  • Kater’s compass and even pacing where approximation sufficed … so long as the corners of the land were clearly staked and marked by the surveyors, the accuracies of measurement and direction were left to chance.
  • + Over the time, Gunter’s chain was replaced by steel bands and invar tapes, and later by Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM) equipment, and subsequently Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. Likewise, compasses were replaced by transits, later theodolites and the Total Stations, which combined angular and distance measurement in a single survey instrument.

Historical Background in Nepal Context

  • Land survey and land record was started from 1383 B.S at the time of Jayasthiti Malla and later in 1680 B.S king Ram Shah and King Pratap Shah.
  • In 1925, Kathmandu Valley and other parts of Nepal is surveyed without proper measurement for the purpose of revenue collection known as Dongol Napi.
  • In 1952, Napi was started by Shree Teen Bir Samsher, Jung Bahadur Rana using chain and trained people and unit was Ropani, Ana in valley and Muri , Pathi in Hill and Bigaha in Terai.
  • In 1960 B.S, Shree Teen Chandra Samsher Rand ordered to classify land as Abbal, Doyam, Shim, and Chaar for revenue collection.
  • In 19080 B.S first cadastral survey was instoduced using Compass, palne table and chain in Bhaktapur district.
  • In 1996 B.S first office as Nepal Government survey Goswara was established.
  • After democracy Survey Goswara as renamed as Department of Survey.
  • Map with trigonometric point and without trigonometric points were done from 2021 to 2028.
  • Again from 2052 recadastral survey with trigonometric points have been continued.

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