## Physics Chapterwise important Questions

**Class 12 National Examinations Board[Physics]**

**Important Contents**

**Unit 1: Mechanics**

**1. Rotational dynamics**

**1.1. Recall equations of angular motion and compare them with equations of linear motion**

**1.2 Derive the expression for rotational kinetic energy**

**1.3 Describe the term moment of inertia and radius of gyration**

**1.4 Find the moment of inertia of thin uniform rod rotating about its center and its one end**

**1.5 Establish the relation between torque and angular acceleration of a rigid body**

**1.6 Describe the work and power in rotational motion with expression**

**1.7 Define angular momentum and prove the principle of conservation of angular momentum**

**1.8 Solve numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding the rotational dynamics**

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**2. Periodic motion**

**2.1 Define simple harmonic motion and state its equation.**

**2.2 Derive the expressions for energy in simple harmonic motion**

**2.3 Derive the expression for period for vertical oscillation of a mass suspended from coiled spring**

**2.4 Describe angular simple harmonic motion and find its period**

**2.5 Derive expression for period of simple pendulum**

**2.6 Explain the damped oscillation**

**2.7 Describe forced oscillation and resonance with suitable examples**

**2.8 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding the periodic motion**

**3. Fluid statics**

**3.1 State and explain Archimedes principle and Pascal’s law**

**3.2 Define up-thrust, pressure in fluid, buoyancy, center of buoyancy and meta center**

**3.3 State and use the law of floatation,**

**3.4 Describe surface tension and explain its principle**

**3.5 Establish the relation between surface energy and surface tension**

**3.6 Define angle of contact and capillarity with examples**

**3.7 State the Newton’s Formula for viscosity of a liquid and define coefficient of viscosity**

**3.8 Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flow & describe Reynolds number**

**3.9 Recall and use the Poiseuille’s formula**

**3.10 State Stoke’s law and use it to determine the coefficient of viscosity of given liquid**

**3.11 Explain equation of continuity and its application**

**3.12 Recall the Bernoulli’s equation and explain its uses**

**3.13 Solve the numerical problems and conceptual questions regarding the fluid statics**

**Unit 2: Heat and Thermodynamics**

**4. First Law of Thermodynamics**

**4.1 Clarify the concept of thermodynamic system.**

**4.2 Explain the meaning of work done by the system and work done on the system, and describe how work**

**done by gas during expansion can be calculated from indicator (P – V) diagram.**

**4.3 Explain the concept of latent heat and internal energy.**

**4.4 State and explain first law of thermodynamics - increase of internal energy (dU) = heat into the system (dQ)**

**+ work done on the system (PdV) realizing its limitations and necessity of second law of thermodynamics.**

**4.5 Define and explain two specific heat capacities of gas appreciating the relation Cp – Cv = R and cp – cv = r.**

**4.6 Explain various thermodynamic process (isothermal, isobaric, isochoric and adiabatic) with good concept of**

**their P – V diagram.**

**4.7 Derive adiabatic equation PV = constant.**

**4.8 Derive expression for work done during isothermal and adiabatic process.**

**4.9 Give concept of reversible and irreversible process with examples.**

**4.10 Solve mathematical problems related to first law of thermodynamics and thermodynamic process.**

**5. Second Law of Thermodynamics**

**5.1 State and explain second law of thermodynamics (Kelvin’s and Clausius’s statement).**

**5.2 Compare second and first law of thermodynamics considering indication of direction of flow of heat.**

**5.3 Explain heat engine as a device to convert heat energy into mechanical energy appreciating that its**

**efficiency is less than 100%.**

**5.4 Discuss Carnot’s cycle with the concept of P – V diagram and calculate the work done of each step and**

**corresponding efficiency.**

**5.5 Describe internal combustion engines, Otto engine and diesel engine with the help of P – V diagram to**

**compare their efficiencies.**

**5.6 Explain refrigerator as heat engine working in reverse direction**

**5.7 Introduce entropy as a measure of disorder appreciating its roles in thermodynamic process.**

**5.8 Solve mathematical problems related to heat engine.**

**Unit 3: Wave and Optics**

**6. Wave motion**

**6.1 Define and understand progressive wave**

**6.2 Write progressive wave in mathematical form**

**6.3 Discuss the condition under which stationary waves can be formed**

**6.4 Write stationary wave in mathematical form**

**6.5 Calculate frequency, amplitude, velocity, time period, etc of progressive wave**

**6.6 Find expression for stationary wave using two progressive waves**

**7. Mechanical waves**

**7.1 Calculate Speed of wave motion**

**7.2 Understand and write expression for the Velocity of sound in solid and liquid**

**7.3 Describe Velocity of sound in gas**

**7.4 Describe Laplace correction**

**7.5 Formulate the effect of temperature, pressure, humidity on velocity of sound and their physical meaning**

**7.6 Solve numerical problems related to velocity of sound in the given medium and condition**

**8. Wave in pipes and strings**

**8.1 Understand the formation of stationery waves in closed and open pipes**

**8.2 Define and understand harmonics and overtones**

**8.3 Discuss harmonics and overtones in closed and open organ pipes**

**8.4 Understand end correction in pipes**

**8.5 State and use the formula for velocity of transverse waves along a stretched string**

**8.6 Understand Vibration of string and overtones 8.7 Know the laws of vibration of fixed string**

**9. Acoustic phenomena:**

**9.1 Describe sound waves as pressure waves in a medium**

**9.2 Characterize the sound using its intensity, loudness, quality and pitch**

**9.3 Discuss Doppler’s effect**

**9.4 Apply Doppler effect in realistic case where source and observers are in relative motion.**

**10. Nature and propagation of Light:**

**10.1 Use Huygen's principle to explain reflection and refraction of light**

**11. Interference**

**11.1 Explain the Phenomenon of Interferences**

**11.2 Understand the meaning of coherent sources**

**11.3 Describe Young's double slit experiment and obtain the expression fro nth order maxima**

**12. Diffraction**

**12.1 Describe diffraction at a single slit**

**12.2 Understand diffraction pattern of image and derive the expression for the position of nth order minima**

**12.3 Explain diffraction through transmission/diffraction grating and use the formula for maxima**

**12.4 Explain resolving power of optical instruments**

**13. Polarization**

**13.1 Describe phenomenon of polarization**

**13.2 Explain how polarization of light explains the transverse nature of light**

**13.3 State and use Brewster’s law**

**13.4 Show the understanding of construction, working principle and uses of Potentiometer for comparing emfs**

**and measuring internal resistance of cells**

**Unit 4: Electricity and Magnetism**

**14. Electrical circuits:**

**14.1 Understand Kirchhoff’s law as well as use it to calculate unknown parameters in electrical circuits**

**14.2 Describe the circuit diagram and working of Wheatstone bridge circuit and understand its importance in**

**real situation**

**14.3 Describe Meter bridge and understand it**

**14.4 Know construction, working and importance of Potentiometer**

**14.5 Understand the concept of super conductors**

**14.6 Know the meaning of perfect conductors and distinguish it from superconductor**

**14.7 Learn the technique to convert galvanometer into voltmeter and ammeter**

**15. Thermoelectric effects:**

**15.1 Explain Seebeck effect and its application in Thermocouples**

**15.2 Show understanding of the construction and working principle of thermocouple as a temperature**

**measuring device**

**15.3 Explain Peltier effect**

**15.4 Understand the construction and working of Thermopile**

**16. Magnetic field:**

**16.1 Show understanding of the concept of magnetic field lines and magnetic flux and sketch magnetic field**

**lines around a straight current carrying conductor and long solenoid**

**16.2 Explain Oersted’s experiment, its outcome and limitations**

**16.3 Discuss force on moving charge in uniform magnetic field**

**16.4 Discuss force on a current carrying conductor placed in uniform magnetic field**

**16.5 Describe force and Torque on rectangular coil placed in uniform magnetic field**

**16.6 Describe moving coil galvanometer and know its applications**

**16.7 Explain Hall effect and derive the expression VH=BI/ntq where t is thickness**

**16.8 Use Hall probe to measure flux density of a uniform magnetic field**

**16.9 State Biot and Savart law and know its application on (i) a circular coil (ii) a long straight conductor (iii) a**

**long solenoid**

**16.10 State Ampere’s law and know its applications to (i) a long straight conductor (ii) a straight solenoid (ii) a**

**toroidal solenoid**

**16.11 Discuss force between two parallel conductors carrying current- definition of ampere**

**17. Magnetic properties of materials:**

**17.1 Define relative permeability and relative susceptibility of a magnetic material**

**17.2 Discuss relationship between relative permeability and susceptibility**

**17.3 Discuss Hysteresis of ferromagnetism**

**17.4 Understand Dia,-para- and ferromagnetic materials**

**18. Electromagnetic Induction:**

**18.1 State and show understanding of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction**

**18.2 State and show understanding of Lenz’s law**

**18.3 Discuss construction and working of A.C. generators**

**18.4 Define eddy currents, explain how they arise and give a few examples where eddy currents are useful and**

**where they are nuisance**

**18.5 Describe self-inductance and mutual inductance and understand their uses**

**18.6 State the expression for energy stored in an inductor and use it wherever needed**

**18.7 Discuss the construction, working principle and importance of transformer**

**18.8 Discuss the sources of energy loss in practical transformer**

**19. Alternating Currents:**

**19.1 Understand peak and rms value of AC current and voltage**

**19.2 Discuss AC through a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor**

**19.3 Understand Phasor diagram in RC and RL circuits**

**19.4 Discuss series circuits containing combination of resistance, capacitance and inductance**

**19.5 Describe series resonance condition and know its applications**

**19.6 Understand the meaning of quality factor**

**19.7 Discuss power in AC circuits and know the term power factor**

**Unit 5: Modern Physics**

**20. Electrons**

**20.1 Describe Millikan’s oil drop experiment and explain how it suggests quantization of charge**

**20.2 Describe the motion of electrons in electric and magnetic fields and derive appropriate mathematical**

**expressions**

**20.3 Describe J.J Thomson’s experiment with suitable diagrams to explain the discovery of electron and its**

**characters**

**20.4 Solve numerical problems related to above topics**

**21. Photons**

**21.1 Describe quantum nature of radiation**

**21.2 Explain properties of photons**

**21.3 Describe work function and photoelectric effect**

**21.4 Derive Einstein’s photoelectric equation**

**21.5 Describe Millikan’s experiment for the verification of Einstein’s photoelectric equation and calculate**

**Planck’s constant**

**21.6 Solve some related problems**

**22. Semiconductor devices**

**22.1 Describe the formation of PN junction and semiconductor diode**

**22.2 Plot forward and reverse characteristics of semiconductor diode including the concept of Zener diode**

**22.3 Define rectifier**

**22.4 Describe full wave rectification using semiconductor diodes**

**22.5 Define logic gates and explain operation of different logic gates OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR gates**

**with their symbol , Boolean algebra and truth table**

**23. Quantization of energy**

**23.1 Write the postulates of Bohr’s model**

**23.2 Derive the expression of radius of nth orbit, velocity of electron in nth orbit and total energy of electron in**

**nth orbit of H-atom**

**23.3 Obtain the expression of wavelength of a spectral line**

**23.4 Obtain mathematical expressions different spectral series of H-atom**

**23.5 Differentiate excitation and ionization potentials**

**23.6 Explain emission and absorption spectra**

**23.7 Describe de Broglie hypothesis**

**23.8 Define x-rays**

**23.9 Describe modern Coolidge tube method for the production of x-rays with quality and quantity**

**23.10 Illustrate different properties of x-rays along with their applications**

**23.11 Solve numerical problems related to quantization of energy**

**24. Radioactivity and nuclear reaction**

**24.1 Explain the meaning of Radioactivity – natural and artificial**

**24.2 Differentiate types of radiations coming from radioactive sources – alpha, beta particles and gamma rays**

**and state their properties**

**24.3 Explain radioactive disintegration law**

**24.4 Obtain the expressions of half-life, decay constant and mean life**

**24.5 Explain the working of Geiger-Muller Tube**

**24.6 Analyze some medical uses and health hazard of nuclear radiation**

**24.7 Work out some related numerical problems**

**24.8 Reason conceptual questions**

**25. Recent trends in physics**

**25.1 Seismology**

**a. Briefly explain the origin of earthquakes**

**b. Explain different types of surface waves: Rayleigh and Love waves**

**c. Explain different types of internal waves: S and P-waves**

**d. Give brief introduction to the wave patterns of Gorkha Earthquake 2015**

**25.2 Demonstrate basic ideas on**

**a. Gravitational Wave**

**b. Nanotechnology**

**c. Higgs Boson**