Important Questions of Biology NEB class 12 - Note Library


Important Questions of Biology NEB class 12

BOTANY1. Describe the structure and types of meristems and permanent tissues.
2. Describe anatomy of dicot and monocot root and system with labelled diagram.
(diagram can be given and ask to label the parts also with their functions)
3.Explain the stages of Secondary growth of dicot stem. (Imp for long question)
4.Define the terms diffusion, osmosis, and plasmolysis, ascent of sap 
5. Differentiate between transpiration and guttation.

6. Explain the types of photosynthetic pigments. 
7.Explain the mechanism of photosynthesis: photochemical phase and Calvin-Benson cycle. (Imp for long question)
8.Differentiate between C3 and C4 plants,
9. Define photorespiration
10.Explain the mechanism of glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport system. (Imp for long question)
11.List the physiological effects of auxins, gibberellins and Cytokinin's. 
12.Define the seed germination, dormancy, photoperiodism, vernalization, senescence; plant movements (tropic and nastic)
13. Explain structure and function of DNA and RNA, 14.Explain DNA replication.
15.Define genetic code.
16. State and explain Mendel's experiment and laws of inheritance. (Imp for long question)
17. Explain gene interactions (incomplete dominance, codominance). 
18. Explain the concept and types of linkage (complete and incomplete). (Imp for long question)
19. Describe the sex-linked inheritance (color blindness in man and eye color of Drosophila). (Imp for long question)
20. Describe the concept and significances of crossing over.
21. Explain the types of (gene and chromosomal mutation) and polyploidy (origin and significance). (Imp for long question) 
22. Define the terms: pollination and fertilization.
23.Explain the development of male and female gametophytes.
24. How does development of dicot and monocot embryos occur?
 25. Define the terms: tissue culture, plant breeding, disease resistance plants, genetic engineering and GMOs (genetically modified organisms) and application, bioengineering, food safety and food security.
26. Describe green manure and biofertilizer, bio-pesticide.
1.Explain the structure, functions & location of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues.
2. Describe the stages of development of frog :cleavage, morulation, blastulation, gastrulation, organogenesis - formation of notochord, nerve cord & coelom.
3. Describe the structure and function alimentary canal and digestive organs.
4. Explain the physiology of digestion.
5. Explain the Respiratory organs of human body
6.Describe the respiratory mechanism - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration.
7.Explain the structure and working mechanism of heart
8. Describe the origin and conduction of heartbeat
9. Define the terms: cardiac cycle, cardiac output, blood pressure 10. List the blood grouping of human being.
11. Mention the major arteries and veins of arterial and venous systems of human body.
12. Define the terms: ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism 13. Explain the Excretory organs of human and state their functions.
14. Describe the mechanism of urine formation.
15. Explain the Types of nervous system: central, peripheral & autonomous
16. Describe the structure and function of brain
 17. Explain the origin and conduction of nerve impulse.
18. Describe the structure and functions of eye and ear. 
19. Describe the structure & functions of hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; hypo- and hyper-activity and related disorders.
20. Explain the male and female reproductive organs.
21.Describe the ovarian & menstrual cycle.

22. What is human growth problem? What are the control strategies of human population growth? 
23. Define demographic cycle.
24. Explain the concept of cardiovascular, respiratory & renal disorders; Substance abuse: Drug, alcohol and smoking abuse.
25.Define the terms: Reflex action, taxes, dominance and leadership.
26. Explain the Fish and bird Migration with examples.
27. Explain the effects and control measures of air, water and soil pollution.
28. Explain the Pesticides & their effects.
29. Describe the concept of tissue and organs transplantation, in-vitro fertilization (IVF), amniocentesis,
30. Explain the Poultry farming and fish farming.
31.Describe the diseases(Typhoid, Tuberculosis and HIV infection, cholera, influenza, hepatitis, candidiasis.) on the following topics.
Introduction, causative agents, symptoms, prevention and control measures of selected human diseases
32. What are the types of immunology-vaccines?
33. List the Applications of microorganisms in dairy and beverage industries.
34. Explain the microbial contamination of water, sewage and drinking water treatment.
35. Define bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers.

                   Botany Section 
1) Plant anatomy - Contains 5- Marks (1 short - 1 MCQ)
- Xylem and Phloem(difference)
- Anatomy of dicot system (most imp.)
-Focus on figures (question might be asked from fig.)

2) Plant physiology - 11 Marks - 2 Short is orbOnr long is and 3 MCQS 
- Mechanism of photosynthesis
(Photochemical phase most imp.)
- Mechanism of respiration
(Most imp.- glycolysis and Krebs cycle)
- Plant hormones
(auxin, gibberellins and cytokinins)

3) Genetics - 12 Marks
(My guess- One long - One Short)
- DNA replication
- Structure of DNA
- Coloured blindness in man and eye colour of Drosophila (One is fixed)
- Mutation(Gene & Chromosomal mutation)

4) Embryology - 5 Marks - 1 Short - 1 MCQ
- Development of monocot and dicot embryos
- Vegetative Propagation and it's advantages
- Differences between:-
 i. Self and cross pulination
ii. a sexual and sexual rep..

5) Biotechnology - 4 Marks- 1 Short
- Green manure and bio fertilizers
- plant tissue culture
- food security (Challenges and control measures)
- Scopes of biomedical engineering in Nepal
                 Zoology Section 
# Human Biology - 4 MCQS -1 long -1 short

1) Digestive System
- Alimentary canal parts(fig. related question)
- Digestive glands(read briefly)
- Physiology of digestion (important)

2) Circulatory System
- Origin and conduction of heart beat 
- arterial and venous system

3) Excretory System
- Excretory organs(structure of nephron with figure)
- Urine formation(both are imp.)

4) Nervous System - Read Briefly 
Structure and functions of brain 
- If you have notes of class 10 read it.

5) Sense Organ
- working of human ear(important)
- internal structure (briefly)

6) Human population:- (one short questions - 4 marks)
- Differences between J- shaped curve and S- shaped curve
- Curve measures
- Reason giving/ Justify it/related questions)

7) Application of Zoology (Applied Biology)- 2 Short qn or 1 long) is and 1 MCQ
- IVF(Process/stages)
-Amniocentesis (process)
-Fish farming (Types of pond, Breeding technique)
-Fish farming in Nepal
-Typss of organ transplantation
-Focus on Tuberculosis, thyphoid, Hepatitis
(Causative agend, mode of transmission, diagnosis, symptoms and preventive measures)

8) Animal Tisssue:- (5 Marks -1 Short- 1 MCQ)
- epithelial tissue (imp.)
- Differences between adipose and areolar tissue)

9) Developmental Biology:- 4 Marks -1 Short)
-This unit contains 4 marks - 1 short qn)
- Focus on Gametogenesis, blastulation, gastrulation)

- See All the differences between :-
- Axon and dendrites
- Voluntary and involuntary muscles)
- Cartilage and Bone


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