**This article contains important Questions for Class 11 Physics chapterwise. Physics is one of the hardest and complicated subject and their questions are more difficult to solve. So, In this we providing the most important Questions for Class 11 Physics.**

**MECHANICS **

**1. Physical Quantities**

**1.1 Precision and Significant figures:- Precision refers to the level of detail in a measurement, while significant figures indicate the number of reliable or meaningful digits in a numerical value. These concepts are important for communicating the level of accuracy and precision of numerical data, and can impact the results of calculations.**

**1.2 Dimensions and uses of dimensional analysis. **

**(Things to study). **

** * Define- Precise and accurate measurement. **

** * Numerical to check dimensions**

*** Significant figures **

**2. Vectors **

**2.1 Triangle, parallelogram and polygon laws of vectors**

**2.2 Resolutions of vectors; Unit vectors**

**2.3 Scalar and vector products.**

**(Things to study)**

**- Numerical of dot and cross products of vectors**

**- Concepts of resultant**

**- What should be the angular between the two vectors of same magnitude so that resultant is equal to either of them ?(similar types)**

**3. Kinematics **

**3.1 Instantaneous velocity and acceleration **

*** Fluid Statics**

**3.1 Fluid statics: Pressure in a fluid; Buoyancy**

**3.2 Surface tension , Relative velocity**

**3.3 Equation of motion (graphical treatment)**

**3.4 Motion of a freely falling body**

**3.5 Projectile motion and it's applications.**

**(Things to study)**

*** Can a object have zero acceleration but non zero velocity? Can a object with constant acceleration reverse it's direction? (Similar type conceptual question)**

***A bomb is said to be dropped from a moving helicopter on a target on the ground. How can it hit the target explain?**

*** River and Swimming Problem**

*** Projectile numerical (main)**

**4. Dynamics **

**4.1 Linear momentum, Impulse , **

**4.2 Conservation of linear momentum, **

**4.3 Application of Newtown's laws , **

**4.4 Moment, torque and Equilibrium,**

** 4.5 Solid friction: Laws of solid friction and their verifications**

**(Things to study)**

**- Why does the cricketer lower his hands while catching ball? It is easier to pull a heavy load than to push it. Why? Why is kinetic friction less than the limiting friction? (Similar type conceptual questions)**

**- Define angle of friction, angle of repose, momentum, state and explain conservation of linear momentum**

**- Numerical from friction(Most) , numerical from force (lift problem, pulley problem)**

**- Bomb at rest explodes type question**

**5. Work energy & Power**

**5.1 Work done by a constant force and a variable force**

**5.2 Power**

**5.3 Work- energy theorem; Kinetic and potential energy**

**5.4 Conservation of Energy**

**5.5 Conservative and non- conservative forces**

**5.6 Elastic and inelastic collisions.**

**(Things to study)**

**- Define conservative and non conservative forces, elastic and inelastic collision, relation of KE and momentum **

**-Numerical based on conservation of energy, conservation of linear momentum and work and friction related numerical **

**6. Circular Motion**

**6.1 Angular displacement, velocity and acceleration**

**6.2 Relation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration**

**6.3 Centripetal acceleration**

** 6.4 Centripetal force**

**6.5 Conical pendulum**

**6.6 Motion in a vertical circle**

**6.7 Applications of banking**

**(Things to study)**

**- Conceptual questions: Why does cyclist lean from vertical while turning on curved track?**

**- Why are curved roads banked?**

**- Define: Centripetal force, angular velocity, Centripetal acceleration, banking of curved roads, Conical pendulum, centrifugal force, simple pendulum.**

**- Numerical on simple and conical pendulum, vertical circle**

**7. Gravitation**

**7.1 Newton's law of gravitation**

**7.2 Gravitational field strength**

**7.3 Gravitational potential, Gravitational potential energy**

**7.4 Variation in Value of 'g' due to altitude and depth**

**7.5 Centre of mass and center of gravity**

**7.6 Motion of a satellite: Orbital velocity and time period of the satellite**

**7.7 Escape velocity**

**7.8 Potential and kinetic energy of the satellite**

**7.9 Geostationary satellite**

**7.10 GPS**

**(Things to study)**

**- Conceptual question: If earth suddenly stops rotating about its axis what would be effects on g ? If radius of earth is shrink by 2% what will be the effect of g ?**

**- Black hole related question**

**- Weightless related question**

**-Define : escape velocity, geostationary satellite, gravitational potential energy, Geostationary satellite**

**- Numerical based on escape velocity, orbital velocity, period of revolution of satellite, total energy needed to raise satellite**

**8. Elasticity **

8.1 Hook's law: Force constant

8.2 Stress: Strain; Elasticity and Plasticity

8.3 Elastic modulus: Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus

8.4 Poisson's ratio

8.5 Elastic potential energy

(Things to study)

- Define elastic limit, breaking stress, elasticity, Plasticity, hook's law,proportional limit, stress, strain, Poisson's ratio

- Why are rubbers used as vibration absorber? Why are bridge declared unsafe after a long use ? Which one is more elastic rubber or steel?

- Numerical related to Young's modulus of elasticity, extension, energy stored in wire

Heat and Thermodynamics

**9. Heat and Temperature**

**9.1 Molecular concept of thermal energy, heat and Temperature, and cause and direction of heat flow**

**9.2 Meaning of thermal equilibrium and Zeroth law of thermodynamics**

**9.3 Thermal equilibrium as a working principle of mercury thermometer.**

**(Things to study)**

**- The possibility of 'water taps burst' rise in severe winter. why ?**

**- A square brass plate has a large circular hole cut in its centre. If the plate is heated, it'll expand. Will the diameter of the hole expand or contact? Explain.**

**- Express 98°F into Kelvin**

**- At what point thermometric scale does the Kelvin scale reading coincide with Fahrenheit scale.**

**- Difference between heat and Temperature**

**- Why are glass window possible to be cracked in very cold region?**

**10. Thermal Expansion **

**10.1 Linear expansion and it's measurement**

**10.2 Cubical expansion, Superficial expansion and it's relation with linear expansion**

**10.3 Liquid Expansion **

**10.4 Dulong and petit method of determining expansivity of liquid**

**(Things to study)**

**- The possibility of 'water taps burst' rise in severe winter. why ?**

**- A square brass plate has a large circular hole cut in its centre. If the plate is heated, it'll expand. Will the diameter of the hole expand or contact? Explain.**

**- Express 98°F into Kelvin**

**- At what point thermometric scale does the Kelvin scale reading coincide with Fahrenheit scale.**

**- Difference between heat and Temperature**

**- Why are glass window possible to be cracked in very cold region?**

**- Numerical related to second pendulum, Linear, Cubical, Superficial expansivity**

**11. Quantity of Heat**

**11.1 Newton's law of cooling**

**11.2 Measurement of specific heat capacity of solids and liquids**

**11.3 Change of phases: latent heat**

**11.4 Specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization 11.5 Triple point**

**11.6 Measurement of specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization**

**(Things to study)**

**- Why does the steam at 100°c give mode severe burn than water at same temperature?**

**- Why does food cook faster in pressure cooker?(similar type conceptual questions)**

**- State and explain Newton's law of cooling**

**- Define Triple point, heat capacity, Latent heat, Specific heat capacity**

**- Numerical related to Latent heat (max.)**

**12. Rate of heat flow**

**12.1 Conduction: Thermal conductivity and measurement**

**12.2 Convection**

**12.3 Radiation: Ideal radiator **

**12.4 Black - body radiation**

**12.5 Stefan - Boltzmann law.**

**(Things to study)**

**- What is black body? Why are polar regions much cooler than equatorial region?**

**- Why are two thin blankets warmer than a single blanket of double thickness?**

**- Define emissivity, Conduction, convection, radiation with example, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal conductivity.**

**- Numerical using Stefan law (most) rate of heat lost **

**13. Ideal gas **

**13.1 Ideal gas equation 13.2 Molecular properties of matter 13.3 Kinetic - molecular model of an ideal gas 13.4 Derivation of pressure exerted by gas 13.5 Average translational kinetic) energy of gas molecule 13.6 Boltzmann constant, root mean square speed 13.7 Heat capacities: gases and solids**

**(Things to study)**

**- At absolute zero temperature, why KE is zero? What are the characteristics of gas to be an ideal?**

**- Why does cycle tube burst sometimes in summer? (Conceptual question using Boyle's, Charles law)**

**- State and explain Boyle's and Charles law.**

**- Define real and ideal gas**

**- Numerical using Crms speed.**

Waves & Optics

**14. Reflection at curved mirror**

**14.1 Real & virtual images.**

** 14.2 Mirror formula **

**(Things to study)**

**- A concave mirror is often use for applying cosmetics to the face ?**

**- Convex mirrors are used as a rear- view mirror in cars ?**

**- Does the focal length change when a curved mirror is dipped in a liquid?**

**- VVI, Can a convex mirror ever produce a real image?**

**- Derive mirror formula for concave and convex mirror.And to find magnification.**

**- At what position an object be placed in front of concave mirror of radius of curvature 0.4m so that erect image of magnification 3 be produced? Ans: 0.133m**

**15. Refraction at plane Surfaces**

**15.1 Laws of refraction: Refractive index**

**15.2 Relation between Refractive indices**

**15.3 Lateral shift **

**15.4 Total internal reflection **

**(Things to study)**

**- A sick partially dipped in water seems to bent.**

**- Why does diamond sparkle? C= 24.6'**

**- Why does the sun look slightly oval when it is near the horizon?**

**- Lateral shift & Apparent Shift Derivation**

**- Knowledge about critical angle, total internal reflection**

**- What is the apparent position of an object below a rectangular glass slab of refractive index 1.45 and thickness of 0.06m if layer of water 0.05m thick is on the top of glass slab ? Ans: 0.031m above top and 0.0789m below the top.**

**16. Refraction through prisms**

**16.1 Minimum deviation condition**

**16.2 Relation between Angle of prism , minimum deviation and refractive index **

**16.3 Deviation in small angle of prism .**

**(Things to study)**

**- Condition to produce minimum deviation**

**- Deviation produced by a small angle is independence of angle of incidence**

**- Expression of refractive index from minimum deviation derivation**

**- A narrow beam of light incident normally on one face of equilateral prism (refractive index of 1.45) being surrounded by water (refractive index of 1.44) . At what angle the ray of light emerges out . Ans: 70.8°**

**17. Lenses**

**17.1 Spherical lenses, angular magnification**

**17.2 Len's maker formula**

**17.3 Powe of a Lens**

**(Things to study)**

**- Convex lens is immersed in water. Will it's focal length change (similar, what happens to its power) ? Explain.**

**- Can concave lens from a real image? Condition?**

**- Lens maker formula VVI**

**- Derive formula for concave and convex lens**

**- Derive formula for effective power of two thin lenses in contact.**

**- A convex lens of focal length is 24cm and refractive index 1.5 is totally immersed in water of refractive index 1.33. Find it's focal length in water. Ans 93.88cm(practice more Numericals)**

**18. Dispersion**

**18.1 Pure spectrum and dispersive**

**18.2 Chromatic and spherical aberration **

**18.3 Achromatism and it's applications**

**(Things to study)**

**- Why does sky appear blue ?**

**- When a white light is dispersed by a prism, red light appears at the top of the spectrum whereas violet at the bottom. Why?(VVI)**

**- Define dispersive power of a Lens.**

**- What is the cause dispersion of light?**

**- Why does sun appear red during the sunrise?**

**- Difference between chromatic and spherical aberration?**

**Electricity and Magnetism **

**Electric charges, Charging by induction, Coulomb's law- Force between two- point charges, Force between multiple charges.**

**(Things to study)**

**- We often experience the Sparks during the winter nights when removing the cloths from our body ?**

**- Define potential gradient**

**- Can two electric lines of force ever intersect.**

**- Can a charge body attract an uncharged body?**

**- Quantization of charge?**

**20. Electric Field**

**Electric Field due to point charges; Field lines, Gauss Law: Electric flux, Application of Gauss Law: Field of a charge sphere, line charge, Charge plane conductor**

**(Things to study)**

**- State and explain gauss law and derive the electric Field intensity of a charge sphere, line charge, Charged plane conductor**

**- Numerical related to gauss law**

**21. Potential, potential difference and potential energy**

**Potential difference, Potential due to a point, Charge , Potential energy, electron volt, Equipotential lines and surfaces, Potential gradient**

**(Things to study)**

**- Define potential gradient and derive expression for it due to point charge.**

**- Derive the relation between electric Field intensity and potential gradient**

**- Numerical related to potential gradient **

**22. Capacitor**

**Capacitance and capacitor, Parallel plate capacitor, Combination of capacitors, Energy of charged capacitor, Effect of a dielectric polarization and displacement.**

**(Things to study)**

**- Two parallel plate capacitors identical in shape and size are filled with air and mica separately, Which one has larger capacitance? Write the relation to support your Ans.**

**- Two identical capacitors are connected in series. Is the resulting capacitance greater or less that of each individual capacitor?**

**- Can we give desired quantity of charge to a capacitor?**

**- Different betweem dielectric strength and dielectric constant.**

**- Derive a relation for the energy stored in a capacitor when it is charge to potential difference of V volts. And also derive energy density.**

**- Derive the relation for equivalent capacitance for capacitors in series and parallel.**

**- Define capacitance of capacitor.**

**- Define the expression for capacitance of parallel plate capacitor.**

**23. DC Circuits**

**Electric currents; Drift velocity and it's relation with current, Ohm's law; Electrical Resistance; Resistivity; Conductivity, Current - voltage relations; Ohmic and Non- Ohmic resistance, Resistance in series and parallel, Potential divider, Electromotive force of a source , internal resistance, Work and power in electrical circuits**

**(Things to study)**

**- Difference between resistance and resistivity**

**- You are given N wires of resistance R. What is the ratio of maximum to minimum resistance.**

**- Will the drift velocity of electron change if the diameter of a connecting wire is halved ?**

**- A wire is stretched to double it's length. What will happen to its resistivity and resistance?**

**- Derive the relation J= nev (VVI)**

**- Numerical related to resistance **

**24. Nuclear physics**

**Nucleus: Discovery of nucleus, Nuclear density; Mass number; Atomic number, Atomic mass; isotopes, Einstein's mass- energy relation, Mass Defect, packing fraction, BE per nucleon , Creation and annihilation, Nuclear fission and fusion, energy related **

**(Things to study)**

**- Difference between nuclear fusion and fission.**

**- Define binding energy, mass defect**

**- State and explain Einstein mass energy relation with example**

**- How does binding energy per nucleon var with mass number**

**- Define isotopes, isobar**

**- Numerical related to binding energy**

**25. Solids **

**Energy bands in solids(qualitative ideas), Difference between metals , insulators and semi-conductors using band theory, Intrinsic and extrensic semi- conductors**

**(Things to study)**

**- Explain band theory**

**- Difference between Intrinsic and extrensic semi-conductors**

**26. Recent Trends in Physics**

**Particle physics: Particles and antiparticles, Quarks (baryons and meson) and leptons (neutrinos) , Universe: Big Bang and Hubble law: expansion of the universe, Dark matter, Black Hole and gravitational wave.**

**(Things to study)**

**- What is black hole?**

**- What is the quark combination of proton and neutron?**

**- Does the universe have a centre ?**

**- State Hubble law and write it's significance of Hubble constant.**

**- What are cosmic rays ?**